It is likely that our so-called “jug” from the Bottom of Banovci – kiln limestone. It explains it on the bottom of the limestone residues and the position of the furnace in the vicinity of the Turonian chalk. Right Bank of the Volga is very rich in layers of Turonian chalk, which apparently served as a building material and fired in a specially designed furnace. Judging by the area of the furnace where there is full Turonian chalk and limestone, our so-called pitcher, in this case, it has a very specific meaning.
Previously, turquoise thermolab melting was an attempt to determine the material melting. Maybe it’s an oxide ore, however, in this area no deposits of metals were found. But it is full of limestone of the Turonian layer, part of which we find at the bottom found a giant furnace. It is likely that it was a lime-kiln.
Interestingly, something similar was found by archaeologists in England in 2009. (See. Ancient British burned lime in huge furnaces). This is a huge lime-kiln, with a diameter of 5.7 m. the Furnace from the Lower Bannovka, according to my measurements of 5.3 m, which justifies its huge size. We are dealing with a typical pit furnace for production of lime.
A similar furnace was found in Kiev in the 1960s and 70s (See Tolochko p. P., Gupalo K. M. Raskopki of Kiev 1969-1970 pp. // The Old Kiev. Kiev, 1975).
Really oven from Kiev smaller, with a diameter of only 2.6 – 2.7 m. Walls are made of bricks on clay. Inside the walls oslavany from the action of fire. The furnace bottom clay, burnout to a depth of 5 cm Below lay a thick layer of lime and pieces of limestone.
Almost the same thing we see in the furnace from the Bottom Banovci. We have two RAID in the form of slag, one turquoise at the base of the bottom, is white at the top of the rim of the furnace. The furnace bottom will be destroyed, possibly burned. At the bottom are pieces of limestone. Turquoise plaque, perhaps a trace of burning of the fuel that was burned on the bottom of the jug, while the upstairs was burnt limestone, characteristically white slag coating the whisk.
Perhaps this area was engaged in production of building lime. The basic process for lime production is calcination, where the limestone decomposes at the temperature from 900°C to 1200°C. In this case, the characteristic white bloom on the rim of our kiln is a lime slag. Whereas turquoise plaque at the base of the furnace bottom is a trace upravlyaemogo of fuel used for burning lime. Most likely lime with the fuel loaded into a furnace mixed. Either the oven was divided lime mesh bottom under which were burning fuel, and the top was loaded with pieces of limestone.
The characteristic features of the turquoise plaque, apparently the fuel was liquid, and it melted part of the tightly absorbed to the wall of the furnace. Either the fuel used is anthracite – coal. Whereas turquoise vitreous plaque is a method of glazing inner walls of the furnace to protect from all sorts of moisture. Probably the turquoise color of the vitreous layer was the result of impurities of oxides of metals, most likely copper oxide which gives a greenish tint, or chromium, which also gives a greenish color.
Now, why they burn limestone? Limestone and chalk is calcium carbonate chemical formula is CaCO3. Carbonate raw materials, which is on the right Bank of the Volga river in the Lower Bannovka, burning for removal of carbon dioxide CO2 in order to obtain quicklime Cao, astringent building material. After firing, burnt lime, before use and extinguished with water. Therefore, our furnace is located in close proximity to the water, right on the banks of the Volga.
That’s actually the entire “jug” in the Cretaceous deposits. Defining it as a kiln limestone, is not possible to ascribe the pit the vessel to the Cretaceous period. It’s one thing if he was right and lies directly in the most thicker Cenomanian layer, over which hung a thick layer of the Turonian chalk, then Yes, it would be likely to refer it to the Cretaceous period. But it is left under a small mound or scree, when something attacked him. So, “jug” of more recent origin, especially when it became clear that, probably, it is a furnace for lime – binder building material in the ancient construction.
Now, if it’s a furnace for production of building lime, there must be the remains of buildings, settlements may not yet excavated.